New PDF release: A brief history of time : from the big bang to black holes

By S W Hawking

ISBN-10: 0553052438

ISBN-13: 9780553052435

ISBN-10: 055305340X

ISBN-13: 9780553053401

A quick background of Time, released in 1988, used to be a landmark quantity in technological know-how writing and in world-wide acclaim and recognition, with greater than nine million copies in print globally. the unique variation used to be at the innovative of what was once then recognized concerning the origins and nature of the universe. however the resulting years have obvious remarkable advances within the expertise of gazing either the micro- and the macrocosmic world--observations that experience proven a lot of Hawking's theoretical predictions within the first version of his book.Now a decade later, this version updates the chapters all through to record these advances, and likewise contains a completely new bankruptcy on Wormholes and Time shuttle and a brand new advent. It make vividly transparent why a short heritage of Time has remodeled our view of the universe

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At normal energies, the strong nuclear force is indeed strong, and it binds the quarks tightly together. However, experiments with large particle accelerators indicate that at high energies the strong force becomes much weaker, and the quarks and gluons behave almost like free particles. html (5 of 8) [2/20/2001 3:14:54 AM] A Brief History of Time - Stephen Hawking... Chapter 5 Figure 5:2 Figure 5:2 shows a photograph of a collision between a high-energy proton and antiproton. The success of the unification of the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces led to a number of attempts to combine these two forces with the strong nuclear force into what is called a grand unified theory (or GUT).

The phenomenon of interference between particles has been crucial to our understanding of the structure of atoms, the basic units of chemistry and biology and the building blocks out of which we, and everything around us, are made. At the beginning of this century it was thought that atoms were rather like the planets orbiting the sun, with electrons (particles of negative electricity) orbiting around a central nucleus, which carried positive electricity. The attraction between the positive and negative electricity was supposed to keep the electrons in their orbits in the same way that the gravitational attraction between the sun and the planets keeps the planets in their orbits.

Thus it is impossible to test grand unified theories directly in the laboratory. However, just as in the case of the electromagnetic and weak unified theory, there are low-energy consequences of the theory that can be tested. The most interesting of these is the prediction that protons, which make up much of the mass of ordinary matter, can spontaneously decay into lighter particles such as antielectrons. The reason this is possible is that at the grand unification energy there is no essential difference between a quark and an antielectron.

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A brief history of time : from the big bang to black holes by S W Hawking


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